Several research dimensions have been studied within this project concerning tourism and Internet which is financed by the CRB. For each dimension, we develop the methodology used and present the results obtained.
1st research dimension: Literature review on local tourism and the internet
The first year of this scientific project, about the information searching behaviours of the consumers of tourism products and the place of Internet within this fundamental process prior to the destination selection, has been dedicated mainly to an exhaustive review of the existing literature, being predominantly North American.
North American scientists are greatly in advance with these reflections in comparison with the French academic world of management and marketing. Consequently, we have to catch up the backwardness in terms of knowledge of the literature to which we are devoting ourselves.
As part of this literature review, it was particularly justified to pay a research visit at HEC Montreal, first school of management after the top 10 of the leading North American universities. For this occasion, several contacts with researchers having already published in the Journal of Consumer Research have been established (in particular Jamy Joy).
The exhautive list of reference books, which were chosen for this first phase of literature review, shows the dominant place given to the notion of experience of consumption.
Within this framework, the approach of an ethnographic and interpreting nature (of which the semiotics) seem to represent an indisputable interest. Consequently, we devoted to it an important portion of time in order to be able to position ourselves among the current experts in this method.
In addition to the order for an article in the review “Recherche et Applications en Marketing” (the number one journal in France for marketing), which is currently being assessed (double article considered), a meeting with Russel Belk, North American professor emeritus with high scientific notoriety and co-editor of several A ranked reviews in the United States, has been organized in December 2005 in Paris. At this occasion, he expressed his wish of a collaboration on an article project about the potential of applying semiotics to distribution channels (general espousal: urban centres, cultural centres surrounding historic monuments...), in addition to the option initially taken to focus only on “virtual” distribution channels such as websites. As this project slips a little bit from the initial themes of this research contract, we adjourned it to an ulterior date although the potentials, in terms of scientific repercussions and valuation of the regional support, seem very promising to us.
2nd research dimension: Analysis of the state of the art: a survey on the utilization of the Internet by local hosts
In order to be able to dispose data of the state of the art, acquire partnerships for future experimental research and be inspired by the existing tourism websites, we firstly conducted an inquiry and an exhaustive referencing. This second research dimension was the one realized at the beginning of the year 2005 and aimed to anticipate the investigations envisaged by GESTIC and CREM about the design of local tourist websites (hosting) in 2005 and 2006.
A telephone survey within the entire territory of Brittany was conducted to measure how tourist accommodations (hotels, cottages, farm holidays...) made use of the internet to promote their activity. An analysis of the current state has been executed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of these websites from a structural perspective (presence of pictures, online booking, prices, and number of pages...). The study has been made exhaustively by random selection of accommodations in Brittany, taken from a database published by the Departmental Administrations of Tourism for the four departments in Brittany.
As regards to the questionnaire followed by telephone interviews with hosts, we observed the following results:
within the four Breton departments, a strong integration of the Internet within the activity is observed, notably through a website and an e-mail address allowing the beginnings of commercial contacts (pre-reservations, information...). Facilities distant from the popular seaside have a much higher quality level of referencing and website design,
we observe that private accommodation sites possess a much better visibility on the Internet than ones dependent on public organisations or city councils (for instance municipal camping sites),
most of the accommodations that have a website, an e-mail address and the possibility of a regular consultation of their e-mails (several times per day) testify that more and more contacts and bookings go through this means. Many of them also acknowledge that they do not have the technical and informational skills required to make their website living,
bookings and requests for information by e-mail are increasing year by year and some accommodation have to face inquiries emanating from abroad,
the major part of accommodations’ websites results from a personal development or provided by a family member. Resorting to a service provider in this sector is rare,
among accommodations not having a website, we notice a strongly expressed desire to have one, notably by the accommodations located in tourist spots. However, the analysis carried out through telephone interviews shows that these persons have very little knowledge of communication on the Internet and how to appear on it (ignorance of the existence of small design structures for websites, exaggeration of the development and maintenance costs of a website, confusion between server services providers and possession of a personal computer...)
Concerning the evaluation of websites by an exhaustive analysis on the Internet and the evaluation through grid of analysis we notice that:
less than 1% of accommodations websites have a translation into English or another language (not even one simple page),
23% of the websites contain no e-mail address allowing to correspond,
4 out of 5 websites do not provide prices for their offer,
24% do not possess pictures of the site,
93% of the websites do not have links to other websites of their environment (for instance to present the land, products, events),
54% of the sites have not been updated since more than12 months.
If a certain weakness of communication on the internet by local accommodation facilities in tourist locations has been highlighted by this study and the analysis of the state of the art, we observe as well that those who make the effort of investing in and ensuring the maintenance of their website, see an impact on their activities. Additionally, we notice that local accommodation hosts have a little knowledge about the market of service providers of this kind. The analysis of existing websites shows a quite important backwardness as regard websites design and update process. The weak opening towards the outside world (foreign tourists) is a fact.
3rd research dimension: Evaluation of the impact of certain contents of accommodation websites on the net surfer’ behaviour
This research dimension has been entirely determined by the preceding work. Here, the objective was to develop simple websites for a tourism business, simple but nevertheless innovative and essential for the Brittany region (rural accommodation or at the farm).
The general methodology applied was an experimental approach that means we compared different websites regarding the evaluations of net surfers by modifying certain parameters of the website, but leaving others unchanged. By these means, the impact of each factor changed could be controlled. The initial evaluations have been made in laboratory in order to measure in details the impact of certain factors on the evaluations (memorization of information, time of net surfing, activated links, evaluation of the content, first impressions ...). An experimental phase under natural conditions (on the Internet) has also been carried out, this time in order to measure the impact of behavioural variables (number of connections, request for information, booking).
Research 1: Information in relation with the history and authenticity of a site
Nostalgia is a concept newly studied by marketing. Sociologic studies demonstrate as well that reference to the past is recurring among young generations, who argue that “in the past” things went better as regards both social and interpersonal relationships and other factors (pollution, work, worldwide tensions, solidarity...). The increasing awareness of globalization has emphasized this phenomenon. Consequently, what refers to the past leads generally to a positive evaluation. We tried to study the impact of this factor in the framework of the evaluation of a website which presents a tourist site that is likely to introduce this historical character.
90 students, divided into 3 groups, originally from different study courses, were recruited to participate in this experiment. They were presented an existing website of type “Rural Accommodation” originating from our previous research. According to the case, the websites displayed a page containing pictures of the farm (view from above, panoramic view, detailed pictures of special locations) and the customers accommodations (bedrooms, bathrooms, living room, playground...). There were 24 pictures in total. To the first group, the pictures presented were current and colour ones. Under a condition known as nostalgia awakening, some current pictures of the farm and the outside of the facilities were shown in black and white. Finally, under a condition known as nostalgia, additional pictures of the farm in old days with scenes from country life were presented. The net surfers had the instruction just to surf on the website. They knew from the beginning that a questionnaire would be submitted, allowing to measure certain impressions induced by the website. These impressions were measured with different scales relating to the website itself (enjoyment, easiness of surfing...), but also to the tourist product (quality of reception, authenticity, pleasant visit...).
The comparison of the groups enabled to stress that:
black and white pictures compared to the same but colour pictures do not lead to a different evaluation of the website, nevertheless, they induce a more positive perception of the site. They lead to a higher probability to spend holidays in such a place,
ancient pictures do not lead to a differentiated evaluation of the web site compared to simple black and white pictures from nowadays and to the same colour pictures, but they induce a more positive perception of the site. These ancient pictures lead to an increase of likelihood to spend holidays in such a site,
ancient photographs lead to consider the site as more authentic, providing food of higher quality and with a more convivial reception.
These results attest that nostalgic references, through the pictures displayed on the website, activates certain emotions that lead to a more positive evaluation of the site and to increase the consideration felt towards this place. It is obvious that the underlining of these effects opens up some perspectives, since we can imagine that other elements may serve to strengthen this feeling and that they could be presented on the website (pictures of objects of the past, photos of the fabrication of products, ancient recipes...).
Research 2: Social proof and tourist site
Social proof is a concept of behavioural sciences stipulating that the simple fact of observing that another one preceded the individual in an action, suffices to encourage him/her even more to adopt this behaviour. The social proof has been intensively used to demonstrate the effect of follow-my-leader attitudes of groups, of non-intervention in negative situations (for instance observation of an attack...).
However, little work has been done in the field of commerce and even less in the field of tourism. The experimentation we conducted attempted to evaluate the impact of this factor.
Within a first experiment, 120 students, divided into four groups and coming from different study courses, were recruited to participate. They were presented an existing website of type “Rural Accommodation” originating from our previous research. The websites displayed pictures of the farm (view from above, panoramic view, detailed pictures of special locations) in the body of the page and obviously pictures of customers accommodations (bedrooms, bathrooms, living room, playground...).
There were 18 pictures spread over the entire website. In one experiment, these photographs showed socially empty locations (without human beings on the picture); in another experiment, individuals could be seen on the snapshot (holidaymakers with their children); in a third group, these snapshots were taken again, but with commentaries supposed to be those of the customers on the scene (example of parents and children next to a farm animal with the comment: “Peter and Jane enjoyed so much feeding Leon, the donkey of the farm”). In the last group, the same content as in the third situation was presented, but a visitors’ book was added containing 14 comments left by customers - orally, by e-mail or letter - and retranscribed on the website (example: “We spent wonderful times at your farm, our children loved the animals, and we were warmly welcomed. We promised ourselves to come back soon”).
In a second experiment, we tested the impact of the previous fourth situation (pictures with comments + online visitors’ book) in reality (implementation on the website server). Different measures of the behaviour of net surfers have been realised by comparing this new situation with the previous website.
These two experiments have enabled to demonstrate that:
the positive evaluation of the website and the location increase with the density of social proof contents. The optimum was reached with commented pictures and a visitors’ book,
a better memorization of information from the website is observed when some commented information is presented. However, the visitors’ book does not induct a better memorization,
intentions to come for such a stay strengthen as the density of social information increase. The optimum being reached likewise with the presence of a visitors’ book,
in real-life situation, the version of the website with social information compared to the one without (identical to the initial website) generates more requests for information and, finally, more booked stays thereafter.
These results underline the impact of certain social information on a tourist website that demands little resources to be implemented. The differential between the evaluation and the purchasing behaviour that follows demonstrate that this is worthwhile being introduced on the website. Additionally, we can imagine that it is possible to reinforce the efficiency of this website, for instance by giving access to this social information to foreigners (visitors’ book with English comments) or by offering video clips. These first results illustrate that this concept of social presence is relevant and that further experimentations should be undertaken, notably under real conditions with existing websites in order to assess the differentiated impact of some variable or other.
Research 3: The immersion in a world of communicational wealth and control
Previous experimental work has demonstrated that certain factors of control of the net surfer on the Internet (choice to enlarge a photo rather than see it imposed in big format, choice to listen a piece of music rather than a broadcast from entering the page or a website...) could influence the evaluation s/he makes of the website. Another research has shown as well that an immersion in a virtual world, but integrating information from the real world, have a positive impact on the evaluation of a website. It is true for certain olfactory or auditory stimuli. Nevertheless, no research integrating these factors was conducted in the context of tourism promotion through websites. Therefore, an experimentation integrating these two parameters has been carried out.
120 students, divided into four groups and coming from different study courses, were recruited to participate to this experimentation. The experiment was carried out in an isolated room, specially fitted out with: 1 computer, 1 headset.
A navigation probe was installed beforehand to record the logs of each internet surfer. The experiment was undertaken individually. Each participant had to surf on a website presenting a tourist city (here: Venice) for 15 minutes. Depending on the case, records of real surrounding sounds were broadcasted or not. Likewise according to the groups, the subjects had the possibility to perform a 360° rotation of the pictures on the website or not. When this possibility was not offered, the internet surfers could see different pictures that summarized what could be seen by the panoramic control. The subjects were asked to surf freely on the website. After consultation of both websites, they answered a questionnaire of evaluation available online.
This experiment has enabled to demonstrate that:
natural ambient sounds have strong impact on the degree of appreciation of the website, but also on the interest marked for the location promoted on the website. We observe as well that these sounds act as facilitators of the memorization of certain information (celebrations),
the possibility of panoramic control leads to more positive evaluations of the quality of the website and induces higher marked interest for the tourist location,
there is a cumulative impact of the sound atmosphere and of the controllability on the evaluation of the location website,
the absence of sound atmosphere and of picture control results in the worst evaluations of the website and the location.
This study demonstrates the relevance of sensorial immersion when surfing on the Internet. The observed positive results, in relation with the presence of real sounds in the equivalent context or the spatial 360° browsing, demonstrate that these factors have to be integrated in the process of valuation of the tourism website. Here, this exploratory work attests of the interest for carrying on experimental research in this field of study.
Research 4: Ambient music on a website and its impact on net surfers’ evaluations
The objective of this research was to study how pieces of music or broadcasted sounds on a website could influence the perceived time, the behaviour of the internet surfer with regard to the visited website, as well as the memorization of the content of the website.
In order to test the validity of the probe previously presented as well as the questionnaire of evaluation designed for websites evaluation, an experimentation has been carried out at the laboratory of experimental economics in Rennes 1 (Labex).
120 students of different study courses were recruited in order to participate to our second experiment. The experiment occured in a room in Labex, equipped specially with: 20 computers, 20 headsets.
A navigation probe was installed beforehand in order to record the logs of each internet surfer. 6 sessions were organized: each person visited a website of advice in oenology as well as an online sales portal for African handcraft. For each of the websites, a piece of music liked or a less liked one was broadcasted; one third of the persons surfed without music. On the other hand, subjects were asked whether to surf freely on the website or to search for particular information. The session lasted about one hour.
After consulting both websites, they answered a questionnaire of evaluation available online.
This experiment enabled the collection of numerous data.
First results indicate that the perception of time does not change according to the background music broadcasted: whether the music was enjoyed, disliked or absent, the person evaluates the time spent on the website in the same way.
In the case of the African website, disliked African music induces a less favourable attitude towards the website in comparison to enjoyed music. Thus, people take greater pleasure from surfing on the website when appreciated music was broadcasted and are more satisfied with the information found. Additionally, they evaluate the products presented more positively than under the condition of “disliked music”.
In the case of the oenology website, the internet surfers are rather in favour of the website with appreciated music, but it seems that it is first and foremost the difference of scenario that impacts on their attitude towards the website.
Further than the congruence between the music and the website content,it is possible that it is rather the congruence between the music aired and the music tastes of the internet surfers that impacts their behaviour and attitudes. In this research we selected beforehand a music style corresponding to the website content (African music for the African website; jazz for the oenology website).
Research 5: New formalization of the presentation of tidal schedules
We have to notice that, at the end of the year 2005, the experiments we conducted on the evaluation of websites which content were modified, had also enabled to carry out another experimentation not evoked before, although it can be applied in the field of tourism.
Inasmuch as the subjects came to participate to an experiment of evaluation of tourist websites, we use this opportunity to make them participate in another evaluation implying the analysis of a new mode of presenting tidal schedules.
The classic tidal timetable reveals ergonomic problems to display information. In particular, it is difficult to know -without cognitive effort- what are the time intervals of high and low tide. Thus, we took this simple case study in order to evaluate the potential of a process of interface design to facilitate the design of ergonomic interfaces. The process we tested is the “Ecological Interface Design” framework. After having developed a document on the basis of this method, we measured the reading time and the number of reading errors by experts in maritime activity and novices. The results obtained are particularly conclusive and enable to value a process of designing interfaces for paper and electronic supports.
The following methodology was used for the implementation:
analysis of the research work in this field,
functional analysis of the tidal sector,
analysis of the needs of the different types of users: realization of interviews with foot anglers, oyster-farmers and sailing specialists (ENV, St Pierre-Quiberon),
design of a new document format,
paper modelling of the document,
elaboration of experiment protocols: variables to manipulate (format of the document, types of support, type of user, context of use),
execution of the experiments: realization of the experiments at the University of Rennes II (20 students) and at the Naval School of Lanvéoc-Poulmic (15 instructors and 5 officer students),
statistical treatment of data, analysis and interpretation in preparation for the realization of scientific communication (see publications).
The results showed that a new method of graphic presentation, easily adaptable to an electronic format, enables to reduce interpretation errors of the tidal schedule and this, whether dealing with novices or experts.
The results have led to a new model of presentation which was the object of the deposit of an envelope at the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI - Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle).
We are thinking of developing the uses of this method of interface design in other fields, and notably to use it in the framework of the ergonomics of decision-making systems in a littoral environment (thesis with the financing of “Région Bretagne” obtained by the laboratory in 2006).
Perspectives in terms of research and applications
The results of these research dimensions, all focused on ICT, cognition and users’ behaviours , have demonstrated that an important number of original researches could be carried out on this general research issue.
They offer new perspectives for future research.
We have demonstrated that the introduction of social variables on the Internet enable to affect truly the behaviour of the internet surfer and the evaluation of the people with whom s/he interacts. As a matter of fact, these results allow thinking that this dimension can be largely developed in the future, since the aspects, introduced in the e-mails or websites previously used, represent only a tiny part of those we could study. Indeed, the fact that these variables really influence the behaviour of the internet surfer, opens research perspectives on the evaluation of variables already known in other contexts, but likewise and even more interesting, of variables it is important to create at present. Consequently, for the forthcoming months and years, the objective of the laboratory will be to maintain this research and innovation effort on the social factors that influence the behaviour of internet surfers. We can notice on this subject that the results of the experiments of Research 3 from the last research dimension abovementioned “The immersion in a world of communicational wealth and control” are in process of adaptation for a local tourist website in order to evaluate its impact.
The applications of e-marketing are obvious here and the partnerships we already have with industry (see above) demonstrate that this perspective of collaboration falls effectively within practice and should be reinforced in the future. In fact, these efforts come fully within the competitive pole “Images and network” and the dimension 2 “ICT” of the House of Human Sciences of Brittany. Therefore, research work as the ones supported by the CRB within the framework of the Marsouin 2005 agreement are in accordance with these regional priorities in terms of research.
Likewise, these works offer useful insights for the development and the valuation of local tourism.
The research works conducted during the year 2005 were the subject of several reports among the scientific community, at the national and international level. This valuation was done through a number of publications in journals or oral communications during scientific conferences. It has to be mentioned that the innovative character of this work has enabled publications in Anglo-Saxon journals which permit a larger scientific diffusion. However, we reserved some publications in French-speaking journals or books, as well as in scientific manifestations that occurred in France. Finally, we could remark that this scientific significance for the sector of behaviour and ICT has given place for an academic scientific distinction.
We also have to notice that for GESTIC the year 2005 marks the second year of its recognition as a young team within the 16th section of the CNU. This inquiry was the first one submitted by the laboratory. The ministry, for this recognition, reckons with the scientific dynamism of certain members of the laboratory (by number of publications) and particularly valued the closeness of the laboratory with industry.
The person in charge of the project is Nicolas Guéguen, Christine Petr represents the CREM for this collaboration.
Regional collaboration: in order to carry out such a research, the Laboratory GESTIC of the University of South-Brittany and the Laboratory CREM collaborated. Within this perspective, two different teams from these laboratories worked together. For CREM, there was the marketing team of the Institute of Management of Rennes for the research design, realization and scientific valuation.
For GESTIC, there was the team GRESICO specialist in the influence of consumption behaviour and particularly the behavior of internet surfers. As a matter of fact, once again, this collaboration between Breton laboratories reinforces the scientific and engineering importance of Brittany in this field. It has to be mentioned that a collaboration has started with a laboratory of the University of Rennes 2 (the CRP2C: Research Centre in Psychology, Cognition and Communication) at the end of the year, through an ongoing partnership with the team of Social Psychology led by Professor Alain Somat.
National collaboration: some research, carried out in 2005, have been made in close partnership with a member of the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Bordeaux 2. This already existing partnership gave rise to the design, realization and scientific valuation of shared projects dealing with the social influence of internet surfers’ behaviour.
Foreign collaboration: the works of the laboratory GESTIC in terms of study of influence factors on behaviour and notably net surfers’ behaviour, have led to two partnerships with foreign universities:
one with the School of Economic Sciences and Management of Tunis from the University of Tunis El Manar to guarantee a co-supervision of a marketing thesis on the net surfer’ influence in a multimedia environment. According to the agreement, the concerned student is welcomed at the laboratory of GRESICO, six months per year.
the second one has involved the Department of Psychology of the University of the Balearic Islands in Palma de Majorca through the reception of a student in Master of Psychology, whose research subject concerns Computer-based Communication and the influence of groups. According to the agreement, the student was welcomed at the laboratory from December 2004 to June 2005. This student took part in certain researches conducted within the framework of this project. This person was integrated in a publication currently being assessed.
Journals in English
Guéguen N., Petr C. (soumis) Social-proof on the Web : An application in a tourism context. International Journal of Hospitality Management.
Guéguen N. & Petr C. (soumis). Media richness and Internet exploration : The effects of street-sounds and navigation-control on web-site evaluations. Journal of Travel Research.
Petr C. & Guéguen N. (accepté). Beginner research on tourism and the tourist : Beware of words and caricatures. Journal of Business Research.
Morineau T., Blanche C, Tobin L. & Guéguen N. (2005) The ecological role of e-book device in the process of learning. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 62(3), 329-348.
Journals in French
Pascual A., Dufourcq-Brana M. & Guéguen, N., (Soumis). Impact de l’utilisation du « pied-dans-la-porte » et du « vous êtes libre de... » dans le cadre de la communication par ordinateur. Nouvelle Revue de Psychologie Sociale.
Morineau, T., Beuzet, E., & Rachinel, A. (soumis). Experimental Evaluation of a tidal display based on Ecological Interface Design Framework. En soumission pour une revue internationale.
Petr C. (soumis), La sémiotique au service du marketing : potentiels et règles d’utilisation, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, Rubrique pédagogique.
Petr (à paraître), “Le fait touristique : Du point de vue de l’anthropologue aux propositions méthodologiques”, Revue Espace.
Guéguen, N. (à paraître). La psychologie du consommateur : nouvelle discipline ou nouveau contexte d’étude ?. Hors-Série Sciences Humaines « Nouvelles psychologies ».
Guéguen N (à paraître). L’influence du consommateur. L’apport de la psychologie. Revue Nervures.
Guéguen N (2006). Influence sur Internet. Pour la Science, Revue Cerveau & Psycho, N°14, 33-35.
Academic books or chapters concerning works originating from certain research dimensions developed above
Petr C. (en cours de rédaction), Le marketing du tourisme, Collection « Les essentiels de la gestion », éditions : Management et Société, Caen.
Guéguen N. (à paraître 2007). 100 petites expériences en psychologie du consommateur (et ses traductions en roumain, coréen, russe).
Petr C. (2006), Interprétation du discours et perspective sémiotique : du schéma narratif au carré sémiotique, Interprétation de discours, Journée de recherche IREIMAR, sous la direction scientifique du Professeur Philippe Robert-Demontrond, édition : Apogée, Rennes.
Guéguen N. & Jamet É. (2006). Cognition et comportement en situation d’exploration Internet. Workshop du GIS Marsouin.
Petr C. (2005), The contribution of three semiotic tools for analyzing store consumers, 2005 International Retailing Symposium : Cutting Edge Research on Retail Patronage and Retail Management, Society for Marketing Advances, San Antonio (Texas), November 1-2 (28 pages).
Morineau, T. (2005). Présentation affordante des horaires de Marée. Séminaire RIEL, http://nte.univubs.fr/lemel/rubrique.php3 ?id_rubrique=4
Petr C. (2005), L’évolution des comportements des publics dans les établissements publics de spectacle vivant, Conférence professionnelle, Scène Nationale de Tarbes - Le Parvis, Tarbes, 12 décembre.
Morineau, T. (2005). Ergonomie et approche écologique de la cognition. Séminaire PERGO, Vannes.
Petr C. (2005), « Le patrimoine : de sa définition ... à ses marchés », Conférence introductive, Les Rencontres Technologiques Interrégionales 2005 des RDT Grand Sud-Ouest Aquitaine • Limousin • Midi-Pyrénées • Poitou-Charentes, Turenne, 22-23 septembre.
Guéguen N. (2005). L’influence du comportement de l’internaute : Approche de la psychologie sociale de l’influence. Ecole d’été CNRS 2005 Modèles et modélisations de l’Internet, Batz-sur-mer, 5-9 septembre 2005.
Petr C. et Guéguen N. (2005), A first approach to tourism and the tourist : beware of words and caricatures !, 4th CPTHL Symposium : Consumer Psychology of Tourism, Hospitality, and Leisure Research, HEC Montréal, 17-20 juillet (37 pages).
Guéguen N. & Petr C. (2005). Preuve sociale et visite d’une site touristique : illustration d’une influence sociale en communication médiatisée par ordinateur. Worshop Marsouin, Usage & Tic, Rennes, 30 juin-1 juillet 2005.
Press articles, radio or television programs of scientific popularization
Soldes et comportement du consommateur. Television News, France 3 Ouest, 11 January 2006.<
Le consommateur est sous influence. Rubrique Economie, L’interview de la semaine. Le Télégramme, 11 December 2005.
La psychologie du consommateur. France Inter, Program “Osmose” presented by Fabienne Chauvière, Sunday, 4th December 2005.
Les actes d’achat, il en connaît un rayon. Ouest France, Arnaud Wajdzik, every local edition, Frriday 3-4 December 2005.
Faire vendre, Rubrique conso. Télématin, France 2 Télévision, 9 September 2005.
L’influence du comportement du consommateur. L’invité des 5 dernières minutes.”13 Heures” Television news, France 2 Télévision, 24 June 2005.
L’influence de la musique sur le consommateur. Rubrique Tous consommateurs by Emmanuelle Daviet, France Info, Wednesday 29th June 2005.
L’influence du consommateur. Rubrique un livre, un jour. Live radio program presented by Jacques Pradel, Europe 1, 27 June 2005.
Couleurs, émotions et comportement. Television program “E=M6”, 20 February 2005.